Operators and ISPs are facing a new challenge today. How to provide users with access to the new, advanced services that are currently available on the market. This is a modern triple play service – the Internet, HD video transport (CATV / IPTV), Cloud Services and voice telephony services (VoIP). These are often provided by various entities and place great demands on the built-in optical distribution grids, their components and their compatibility.
Significantly, the demands of home users as well as business customers on the baud rate increase, This is due to the use of Smart Smart phones and tablets, with a number of applications requiring fast connectivity for social networking, saving albums and movies, or watching HD videos. Business users are increasingly shifting file services to offered repositories, running remotely CRMs and accounting systems, and leveraging e-mail provider e-mail.
Requirements for the transmission of Ultra HD video and 3D video to individual households indicate that the current 30Mbps (100Mbps) transmission rate will be directed to 500Mbps – 1Gbps in the coming years.
FTTx – Fiber To The x
FTTx is a network architecture built on fiber optics instead of classic metallic wires. It offers unparalleled bandwidth for both Triple Play applications as well as future cloud computing and high-resolution video transport. FTTx is a generic term where we assign a variable to x, depending on the distance of the optical fiber from the end user. In general, you can talk about some of the most common types:
FTTD – Fiber To The Desk, FTTU – Fiber To The User
In the case of these two variants, the optical connection is terminated by the user. The FTTD solution is based on the requirement that the optical fiber be fed into the mains socket near the workstation. From here, with the help of a small media converter or directly, depending on the type of network card (classic metallic – with RJ45 connector or optical) connects the terminal device (workstation, PC, MAC).
The FTTU is then a general designation for bringing the fiber directly to the end user.
FTTH – Fiber To The Home
When dealing with FTTH, the fiber is fed into the user’s home, most often terminated in a gateway, CPE (ONT) or media converter, ideal for PON solutions, possibly also as a P2P active network (a much more expensive solution).
FTTO – Fiber To The Office
Similar to the FTTH architecture, FTTO also brings the optical fiber of the access network directly to the end user. The FTTO is primarily intended to connect the corporate sector, offices, schools, hospitals, etc. Requirements not only for transmission parameters of such a connection are different. Emphasis is placed on greater bandwidth, reliability, protection against failures through backups, better responses,
FTTP – Fiber To The Premises
This abbreviation is collectively referred to as FTTH and FTTO, sometimes the label is used for a combination of both.
FTTB – Fiber To The Building
The first possible combination of the optical and connected metallic networks – the fiber introduced into the basement or on the heel of the building, and then the metallic distribution – very common in ours, such as the connection of panel houses – are most commonly connected to the switchgear by a metallic lead.
FTTC – Fiber To The Curb, FTTCab – Fiber To The
The optical cable is terminated in an outdoor cabinet that is capable of delivering connectivity (on existing DSL, CAT.5e cabling) up to 300m from the cabinet and capable of serving hundreds of customers.
FTTN – Fiber To The Node / Neighborhood
This topology is capable of serving a larger perimeter – up to the “last mile” – the existing cable TV connections (HFC and xDSL) are often used.
The basic elements for implementing a passive optical network include:
Optical Distribution Network – ODN . This is a set of all transmissions and elements on the way between the optical line termination – OLT and the optical network terminals and network drives – ONT, ONU. These include optical fibers, passive optical splitters, wave filters, connectors and other passive elements.
Optical Network Termination – ONT . It is a device on the participant’s side. Its main task is to adapt the protocols between the optical access network and the interface, local end-user network.
Optical Network Unit – ONU . This is a generic name for a terminal device on the customer side of an optical network that has the same functionality as an optical network termination. Unlike ONT, however, it implements an end-user connection via a downstream metallic or wireless network, for example, it can combine xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line), Ethernet, or WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) technologies and can generally connect a larger number of end-users.